Gonadal hormone function | easy and pointed
Gonadal hormone function | easy and pointed

Gonadal hormone function | easy and pointed

Gonadal hormone function

Gonad produces both steroids and peptide hormones. The main gonadal hormones are: testosterone, estrogen, progesterone. The functions of each gonadal hormone is given below:

gonadal hormone function
gonadal hormone function

Androgens (11 – ketotesterone )

Androgens are a group of male sex hormones . The main androgen is testosterone , which is secreted by the testes or testicles . It plays an important role in spermatogenesis .  Testosterone (> 95%) is the most produced by the testicles in men. That is, the main organ of testosterone production is the testicles. However, it is produced in small quantities in women by the theca cell and the placenta. The adrenal cortex produces a small amount of testosterone in both men and located in the testicles. Since testosterone is a steroid type hormone, it is derived from cholesterol.

Functions of testosterone:

  • Improving the primary sex organs
  • Improving semen
  • Semen production
  • Achieving maturity of the penis and testicles
  • Secondary sex characteristics such as
    • Beard growing mustache
    • Increase in height
    • Tone change
    • Armpit hair
    • Increase muscle strength
    • Pubic (secret) fur
    • Aggression
    • Increasing the work of oil and sweat glands
    • Increased sexual desire
  • Improving Nerve Tissue
  • Acne
  • Increasing metabolism

Estrogen (17 beta – estradiol )

It is a sex hormone that is produced in the body of women. It plays an important role in oogenesis . Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy. FSH stimulates ovarian production of estrogen by ovarian follicles and corpora lutea granulosa cells. Estrogen is also produced in small amounts by other tissues such as the brain, liver, adrenal glands and breast. The enzyme aromatase is responsible for the synthesis of estrogen.

Functions of estrogen:

  • Increased fat
  • Stimulation of endometrial growth
  • Enhancing the uterus
  • Increased vaginal lubrication
  • Increased thickness of the vaginal wall
  • Increasing bone structure
  • Women’s secondary sex characteristics such as
    • Increase in height
    • Increased sweating
    • Armpit hair
    • Pubic hair
    • Increase breast size
    • Increase the width of the buttocks
    • Increasing the size of the genitals
    • The onset of menstruation
    • Egg formation
  • Increasing metabolism


Progesterone or its derivative progestin is another group of female sex hormones. Progesterone plays a role in the maturation of gametes between males and females. Progesterone and estrogen together are responsible for uterine changes during a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Functions of progesterone:

  • Increase body temperature
  • Increase sex drive
  • Maintains healthy libido
  • Maintains the function of placenta
  • Natural diuretic
  • Acts as natural antidepressant
  • Inhibits breast cancer and endometrial cancer
  • Promotes healthy thyroid function
  • Promotes healthy blood sugar level
  • Maturation of cells and tissues
  • Growth of breast size
  • Stops the uterus from contracting
  • Protects the womb from unwanted cells that may cause damage
  • Increase metabolism

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