Table of Contents
Exercise is any physical or bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Exercise is performed for various reasons. Some people perform exercise to improve strength and growth. Some do exercise to develop muscles and cardiovascular system. Some people perform exercise to gain athletic skills, whereas some people do exercise because of the advice of their doctor or physician to maintain normal health. Many people do exercise to lose excessive body weight. And there are people who perform exercise simply for enjoyment. There are also many people who choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize and improve well-being as well as mental health. Therefore, Whatever the reason is, exercise provides beneficial effects on various body systems. The effects of exercise on body systems (cardiovascular system, nervous system, excretory system and endocrine system) are illustrated below.
Effects of exercise on cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and blood vessels. The primary function of cardiovascular system is to transport nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body and protects the body against disease and infections. A good, well functioned cardiovascular system can gift a healthy body. Exercise can be a great factor behind a good cardiovascular system. Exercise boosts cardiovascular activity as well as provides many beneficial effects on this system. Experts advised that performing light exercise such as walking for at least 30 minutes 3 days a week can gain short and long term benefits on cardiovascular system. So, effects of exercise on body systems (cardiovascular system) are as follows:
Short-term effects of exercise on cardiovascular system
- Faster heart contraction, which leads to an increased heart rate and increased circulation
- Increases pumping of blood throughout the body
Long-term effects of exercise on cardiovascular system
- The heart and lungs become more efficient as training increases
- Decreased resting heart rate
- Improve the ability to take longer breathe
- Reduces the risk of heart diseases
Regular exercise and physical activity are associated with remarkable widespread health benefits as well as a significantly lower cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several long tern studies have also shown that increased physical activity is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality and may also increase life expectancy. Other effects of exercise such as the effect on heart size, plasma volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, the effect on blood pressure etc can also be associated with regular moderate exercise.
But excessive endurance exercise may provide negative impacts on cardiovascular system. Such as:
- Dilation of cardiac chamber
- Cardiac hypertrophy
- Myocardial scarring
- Oxidative stress
- Ventricular septum dysfunction
Effects of exercise on nervous system
Like cardiovascular system, exercise has also many beneficial effects on nervous system. Exercise improves mental health, cognitive function and memory and reduces stress, social anxiety, depression etc. Exercise improves rational thinking as well as social, physical, intellectual performances. Regular light to moderate exercise is good for the brain. Because:
- Exercise creates new neurons
- Improves how existing neurons work
- Releases neurotransmitters that improve brain functions
- Decrease stress, social anxiety
- Improves the processing of emotions
- Prevention of neurological conditions
- Increases energy, focus and attention
- Improves memory and blood circulation
- Reduces insulin resistance and inflammations
- Hinderance to the aging process
Exercise also has effects on hormonal control. For example, moderate physical exercise stimulates hypothalamus to send signals to the pancreas for the secretion of insulin and glucagon. This provides glucose homeostasis in the body. Some neurotransmitters such as catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine) are also released to maintain glucose homeostasis in the body during exercise. So, exercise has many benefits on nervous system.
Effects of exercise on excretory system
Excretory system is the one that is responsible for excreting wastes from the body like urea, ammonia and excess salts. It is one of the crucial systems that provides a vital balance in the level of salts and fluids in the body. Hypothalamus regulates excretion by producing ADH (antidiuretic hormone) which acts to reduce the amount of water from the body hence reduce the rate of excretion. So, it is not unusual to have effects of exercise on excretory system. For example:
- Exercise causes more water loss from the body which indicates the hypothalamus to release more ADH. That means ADH level also increases by exercise.
- Production of more concentrated urine. Because of exercise, increased ADH conserves more water from the urinary tract hence concentrated urine is produced.
- Decreases sodium (Na) level in the bloodstream
- Exercise causes more sweat to keep the body temperature down
- Provides fresh and healthy oxygenated blood supply to the major organs of excretory system
- Removal of the toxic substances from the body through sweat
Regular light to moderate exercise benefits and boosts the functions of excretory system. It is very much related to the eating habits. People who want to be in a growth state need to maintain a positive nitrogen balance where nitrogen intake and output ration is 1. If excretion is greater than input, it creates a state of negative nitrogen balance I n the body and causes problems. An athlete with an eating disorder such as anorexia, nervosa may fall in negative nitrogen balance and negative net protein balance. Such individuals may develop diseases such as cancers, starvation due to famine and other conditions that result in negative nitrogen balance.
Effects of exercise on endocrine system
Endocrine system is also a crucial system that releases and maintains hormonal control which in turn helps in many physiological functions in the body. Exercise boosts hormone circulation, improves organ function, physical condition and improves the state of mind. So, exercise has effects on endocrine system too that might improve the overall condition. Such effects may include:
- Increases testosterone production. Exercise stimulates the release of LH which triggers testosterone production.
- Reduces body weight
- Increases metabolic rate
- Exercise increases insulin sensitivity by reducing blood concentration of insulin. And maintain glucose homeostasis.
- Elevated blood flow. Exercise increases epinephrine levels which in turn increases the amount of blood that heart pumps.
- Widening of blood vessels that allows the muscles to get more oxygen rich blood
- Increases confidence
- Increases libido
- Reduces tension or anxiety. Exercise increases blood endorphin levels. Endorphins block the sensitivity to pain and reduce tension or anxiety by inducing a sense of euphoria.
- Exercise reduces the risk of high blood glucose accumulation, shortness of breath, organ failure, circulation problems and many other problems associated with endocrine system.
So, effects of exercise on body systems (endocrine system) is very crucial.
From the above discussion, it can be said that, in terms of health benefits exercise has no alternatives. So, whatever the reason might be, the effects of exercise on body systems keep one healthy, jolly, disease resistant and in sound mind.
Which 5 body systems benefit from exercise?
Exercise provides beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system, endocrine system, exocrine system.
10 benefits of exercise on body systems?
1. Reduce the risk of heart diseases
2. Increase insulin sensitivity (glucose homeostasis)
3. Widening of blood vessels
4. Decrease Na level in the bloodstream
5. Removal of toxic substances through sweat
6. Decrease stress, social anxiety
7. Hinderance to the aging process
8. Heart and lungs become more efficient
9. Increase testosterone production
10. Increase metabolic rate
Negative effects of exercise on cardiovascular system?
2. Dilation of cardiac chamber
3. Cardiac hypertrophy
4. Myocardial scarring
5. Oxidative stress
6. Ventricular septum dysfunction